• Romanian(Romania)

Ministry of Labour - Pilot Project Report - Apprenticeship System in Romania

The first release of the apprenticeship law took place in 2005 followed by legislative changes, in 2008, 2011, 2012.
While the continuous efforts of the authorities to improve the legislative framework brought a slight increase in the number of apprenticeship contracts, the apprenticeship system continues to be accessed by a relatively low number of employers and potential apprentices. The low level of take-up is influenced by a range of both demand and supply factors. These include the structure of the labour market, employers demand and perceptions, the needs of early school leavers, vocational education provision.
The number of contracts involving work-based apprenticeship remains insufficient as compared to the need of making apprenticeship a successful tool to support employment. The number of enterprises that concluded apprenticeship contracts is a key indicator of the apprenticeship demand. The very low value of this indicator in 2014 indicates a lack of attractiveness of the apprenticeship system for companies, and also suggests a very low level of employer awareness.

The project “Developing the capacity of ministries to develop economic and financial analyses to support policy formulation process relevant to programming and implementation of Structural Instruments” implemented by Prime Minister Chancellery together with World Bank experts, included also the development of three pilot projects of impact assessment that can support apprenticeship policy or regulatory substantiating.
Considering the lack of attractiveness of apprenticeship to employers and to prospective apprentices, one of the pilot project was “Impact assessment of apprenticeship law and formulate recommendations for improvement of implementation” and was conducted between August 2014 and September 2015. The objective of this pilot was to recommend a set of concrete measures, including, if the case, revision of the legislative framework, in order to increase the number of apprenticeship labour contracts and contributing to the increase of number of jobs and qualified workers. 
The identified problem was the following: the lack of attractiveness of apprenticeship for employers, as well as for potential apprentices, which is reflected in the imbalance between demand and supply of apprentices.
We analyzed three options: 1) to do nothing, 2) to increase subsidies, support the training costs, make a big awareness campaign and flexible the duration, 3) to increase a lot the subsidies.
We analyzed for each of the options above and the financial impacts on each actor, SMEs Test, a cost-benefit analysis, in order to choose the best option and to promote it to policy makers.
In order to explore these issues there was a consultation process with employers and apprentices, training providers, public employment services, social partner’s representatives.
Following the consultation process there was gathered some information on:

  • perceptions, experiences and potential of the companies to organize apprenticeship programs in the workplace;
  • experiences, motivations, needs, expectations and career prospects of individuals who wish to pursue apprenticeship programs;
  • preferred options for financing and organizing apprenticeships in the workplace.

The results of this pilot project revealed the fact that a change in legislation is needed through:

  • flexible duration of apprenticeship training,
  • increasing the subsidies for employer,
  • initiating promotion campaigns of apprenticeship programs.

Process flexibility is intended as apprenticeship programs to be customized so that it meets the needs disciple to adapt to the job for which professional forms.
Following the results of the project, MMFPSPV is preparing now a new amendment of apprenticeship law.

For more detailed information, please visit:
RIA Pilot Project Report - Apprenticeship System in Romania